Creating an custom VMWare ESXi 5.5.0 ISO Image for Installation on a Hetzner Server

Recently, I was approached if I could help out installing VMWare ESXi on a Hetzner server. The server had already been rented and the LARA console showed a sad error message stating the ESXi could not find any network cards. D’uh. Bummer that :)

Reading the Hetzner Wiki concerning this issue it does go into great detail on how to configure the ESXi once it is up and running but there is a bullet point which can be easily overlooked:

  • The installation of vSphere 5.5 on all other models requires an extension of the installation media to include drivers for Realtek network cards or for PX60/70 an update of the igb driver.

The standard VMware-VMvisor-Installer-5.5.0-1331820.x86_64.iso used to install ESXi on the Hetzner machine did not have the updated igb drivers resulting in the failure to find/see the network card.

VMWare does provide a simple and easy way to slipsteam addition drivers thus creating a custom CD image but it requires a Windows with Powershell and the installation of VMware-PowerCLI-5.5.0-1295336.exe. At this stage it is a good idea to also install VMware-viclient-all-5.5.0-1281650.exe since you should test the access to the newly installed ESXi host using the VSphere client.

The actual updated igb driver package can be found here:igb-5.0.5.1-1290233.zip. Extract the contents of the archive on the desktop which should produce the following file igb-5.0.5.1-offline_bundle-1290233.zip. Once the installation is complete a new icon should appear on the desktop: VMware vSphere PowerCLI. Double-Click on the icon to open a Powershell containing the VMWare cmdlets. Navigate to the desktop folder.The following script assumes the archive to be on the desktop. Do not worry if the first and the last command seem to take a very long time. Especially the last command. Just be patient.

# Add VMware Online depot
Add-EsxSoftwareDepot https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml

# Clone the ESXi 5.5 GA profile into a custom profile
$CloneIP = Get-EsxImageProfile ESXi-5.5.0-1331820-standard
$MyProfile = New-EsxImageProfile -CloneProfile $CloneIP -Vendor $CloneIP.Vendor -Name (($CloneIP.Name) + "-customized") -Description $CloneIP.Description

# Add latest versions of missing driver packages to the custom profile
Add-EsxSoftwareDepot ./igb-5.0.5.1-offline_bundle-1290233.zip

# Export the custom profile into ISO file, this may take a while
Export-EsxImageProfile -ImageProfile $MyProfile -ExportToISO -FilePath ./ESXi-5.5.0-1331820-standard-customized.iso

This should result on a new ISO image with the file name ESXi-5.5.0-1331820-standard-customized.iso on the desktop. Use this to install ESXi on a Hetzner server with the help of the LARA console. Just follow the installation instructions.

Once the ESXi server is up and running, try to connect to it using the VSphere client. In addition, now would be a good point to install any updates that may exist. In this case, VMWare has an update available ESXi550-201312001.zip. Download the archive and copy the archive to the ESXi server (either by using scp or the VSphere client). Log into the ESXi server using ssh and change into the directory where the update archive is located. Then issue the following commands:

vim-cmd /hostsvc/maintenance_mode_enter
esxcli software vib update --depot=$(pwd)/ESXi550-201312001.zip
vim-cmd  /hostsvc/maintenance_mode_exit
reboot

This will take a while and the machine should reboot. After that, you should have a working and updated ESXi server running on your Hetzner server. What you do next is up to you :)
You can set the security settings of the ESXi via the VSphere client (be careful not to lock yourself out) but you can make those changes on the command line too. Log into the ESXi machine using ssh and execute the following command:

esxcli network firewall ruleset  list

 
Securing a service, for example webAccess, from the command line is not that difficult. You can disable a service or only allow access from specific IP addresses.

  • Disable a service:
    esxcli network firewall ruleset set --ruleset-id webAccess --enabled false
    
  • Prepare the IP address list by disabling the allowed-all flag
    esxcli network firewall ruleset set --ruleset-id webAccess --allowed-all false
    
  • Setting the specific IP addresses allowed to access the service
    esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip list
    esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip add --ruleset-id webAccess --ip-address 1.2.3.4
    esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip add --ruleset-id webAccess --ip-address 1.2.3.5
    esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip add --ruleset-id webAccess --ip-address 1.2.3.6
    esxcli network firewall ruleset allowedip list
    
  • To remove the IP address(es) from the list, use the keyword remove instead of add.

 
Updating the ESXi host once virtual machines are running

  • Obtain a list of running virtual machines
    esxcli vm process list
    
  • Shutting down the virtual machine (prefer if it has vmware-tools running)
    esxcli vm process kill --type=[soft,hard,force] --world-id=WorldNumber
    
  • Shutting down the virtual machine if the guest operating system supports the ACPI shutdown event
    vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms
    vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstate Vmid
    vim-cmd vmsvc/power.shutdown Vmid
    
  • If it fails using the ACPI shutdown event trigger
    vim-cmd vmsvc/power.off Vmid
    
  • Follow the steps outlined above on how to update (set maintenance mode, update, exit maintenance mode)
  • Starting a virtual machine
    vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms
    vim-cmd vmsvc/power.on Vmid